The Kukuom Gold Property
Highlights of the Kukuom Hard Rock Gold Property
|Location||Asunafo South District, Brong Ahafo Region|
|License Holder||Danampco Company Limited|
|Partnership||Joint Venture Partnership with Danampco Company Limited whereby Guskin Gold has an exclusive seventy (70%) percent ownership interest in the Kukuom Shewn Edged Pink Concession.|
|License Name||Kukuom Shewn Pink Edge Concession (“Kukuom Concession”)|
|License Area||156 square kilometers|
|Adjacent Mines||The property is less than 30 kilometers from Newmont Ahafo (15.1 Moz), Kairos Chirano (5 Moz), Anglogold Bibiani (7 Moz)|
|Targets||Primary target is a series of near surface gold-bearing quartz veins for open pit and/or underground mining with secondary targets including alluvial mining within the Tano Basin surface.-|
|Exploration Targets||Highly prospective targets have been identified on the Concession through field mapping and geophysics with a 17-hole drill program scheduled to proceed on the open pit.|
|Status||The Prospecting License is in good standing. It expires 08/11/2023.|
|Mineralization||Quartz vein gold mineralization, disseminated sulphide, recent paleo placer alluvial deposit|
The concession is located at Kukuom, 80km SW of Sunyani in the Brong Ahafo Regional capital. The concession covers a total area of 156 km2.
Guskin Gold has undertaken some amount of exploration works, during this reconnaissance period on the concession area. During the period, a desktop reviews of previous work and technical reports, field surveys and geological mapping was carried out to validate the data from soil sampling, pits, from previous companies. Test pitting to investigate alluvial gold prospects in the concession are currently being planned as is a drill program on the exposed veins.
Guskin Gold’s internal team plans to carry out further fieldwork which will include detail geological mapping, study and interpretation of previous geophysical and geochemical data, stream sediment sampling and pitting. In this report, field work results are presented and used as a basis for an assessment of the potential value of the hard rock gold mineralization.
Figure 1: Location map of the Guskin Kukuom Concession in south western Ghana, West Africa modified after Hirdes 2009
Property Location & Description
The Guskin Gold Concession is in the Asunafo South District and Asunafo North, Asunafo South, and Asutifi Districts of the Brong Ahafo with Kukuom as the largest settlement. Other settlements include Dantano, Asufufo,Tanaso, Sienkyem, Siana and Yank Ye No.1 & 2,etc. It lies within the geographical coordinates of 6039’ to 6045’ 00N and longitude 2°22’ to 2° 30’W. It is located Southwest of Sunyani on field sheets 0603A4 and 0603A2. The area is approximately 156 km2. However, there are also a number of third class roads and interconnecting footpaths throughout the concession, making the area fairly accessible.Pillar coordinates shown on Table 1.
|PILLAR||LAT (N)||LONG (W)|
|P1||06° 45' 00"||02° 30' 00"|
|P2||06° 45' 00"||02° 22' 15"|
|P3||06° 39' 00"||02° 22' 15"|
|P4||06° 39' 00"||02° 30' 00"|
Table 1: Pillar Coordinates
Figure 2: Guskin Concession Showing contours and drainage
Climate, Topography and Drainage
The annual rainfall is in the range of 1,500 – 2,000 mm and the minimum and maximum temperatures are about 22°C and 36°C respectively, with an average annual temperature of about 29°C and high relative humidity. A major rainy season occurs from April to July followed by a minor one from September through October. The concession area has low relief with an average of 150 m above mean sea level. The Tano River provides major drainage to the south with numerous tributaries displaying a dendritic drainage pattern. The vegetation is of the tropical rain forest type but is mostly disturbed by farming activities leading to less densely wooded secondary forest type vegetation. About 75% of the farmable area of the concession is now covered in cocoa plantations. The rest are reserved for foodstuffs such as corn, plantain, bananas, oil palm, tomatoes, okra, garden eggs, pineapples, cabbage, carrots, cassava, yams, and rice. Citrus fruits, avocados and papayas are also grown.
About 80% of the people of the habitable area in the concession are of the native origin that is Brong and few other tribes such as the Ashantis and others from the Northern part of Ghana. The people are mainly farmers; and cultivate cocoa, oil palm and food stuffs, such as cassava, plantain, cocoyam and corn. from farming and lumbering, there are also small-scale mining activities going around the property and vicinity.
Access to the area is motorable and is within the Goaso-Bibiani asphalt stretch through a Kukuom. The concession is accessed most easily from Kumasi via asphalt road to Bibiani then northerly for 44 kilometres on asphalt road to the junction of the road to Kukuom. A good network of laterite roads and foot trails connect the settlements and provides access for exploration crews Kukuom has highway access and electricity. The town contains hotels, abundant markets and restaurants, hospitals, and medical clinics, a cell phone tower, a network of land phones connected to the Ghana Telephone system via radio, and an internet café with a satellite dish. Kukuom is a big city with police headquarters. The Guskin Concession itself is sparse, populated inhabited by small agrarian villages and settlements, mainly engaged in cocoa or other farming.
Geology and Mineralization
The geology of Southwest Ghana is dominated by the Birimian Supergroup metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks and various granitoid intrusions.Granitoid intrusions are subdivided into two types: Belt Type (Dixcove) granitoid and Basin Type (Cape Coast) granitoid. Belt type granitoids (ca. 2180Ma, Allibone et al. 2004) possess a metaluminous character, are often tonalite to granodiorite and are confined to Birimian metavolcanic belts (Hirdes and Leube 1989). Basin granitoid (~2116- 2088 Ma, Allibone et al. 2004b) have a peraluminous character and higher K and Rb relative to belt granitoids, are mainly granodiorite, and associated with the central portions of Birimian metasedimentary basins (Hirdes and Leube 1989).
Within the Birimian Supergroup, northeast striking mafic metavolcanic belts are separated from intervening metasedimentary (dominantly turbiditic) basinsby major faults. These faults probably controlled early syn-Birimian sedimentary basin down-faulting (Hirdes and Leube 1989). The two largest and best known of the Birimian metavolcanic belts are the Ashanti Belt and Sefwi-Bibiani Belt.
Dating of granitoid rocks (Belt Type granitoids) that cut the Birimian metavolcanic rocks constrains the age of these rocks as greater than ca. 2186 Ma. Detrital zircons in the Birimian metasedimentary rocks yield U-Pb ages between 2187and 2130 Ma, indicating deposition of both units occurred after 2130 Ma.
Granitoid rocks (Basin type) that intrude the Birimian metasediments and Tarkwaian Group have U- Pb zircon ages of ~2116 to 2088 Ma, which indicates deposition of both sedimentary packages occurred prior to 2116 Ma. Allibone et al, (2002) suggest that the compression, polyphase deformation and metamorphism of all Birimian rocks happened contemporaneously with the intrusion of basin type granitoid rocks and probably reactivated the Beltbounding faults as thrust faults. U-Pb geochronology on ore-related titanite in the Ashanti deposit indicates that gold mineralization occurred at ca. 2100- 2090 Ma (Oberthür et al. 1998), at the later stages of this event. Allibone et al, (2002) suggests that the last phase of deformation was predominantly sinistral strike slip faulting resulting in ore-hosting shear zones.
The Sefwi Belt is one of Ghana’s largest belts volcanic belts with prominent gold deposits on the northwest and southeast margins. The Belt consists of extensive mafic volcanic rocks and widespread Belt-type dioritic intrusive bodies, some of which host gold mineralization as at Newmont’s Ahafo Mine along the northwest margin of the belt. Here gold is being produced from 4 individual open pit operations. Along the southeast margin, the Mine and Mineroccur along structures that form the sheared margin of the belt. Tarkwaian rocks occur along the margin of this belt near the Chirano Mine.
Figure 3: Southern Geology of Ghana showing Sefwi Belt
Regional Tectonic Structures
The Sefwi Belt is a typical Birimian volcanic belt of considerable width (40 – 60km) and lateral extent. The belt is exposed for several hundred kilometers from the Atlantic coast in SE Cote d’Ivoire through SW Ghana and under the Voltaian aged sediments just north of the Kumasi to Sunyani highway. In Ghana the belt has a strike length of about 220 km.
The Sefwi Belt is dominated by mafic volcanics, extensive belt-type intrusive complexes and lenses of metasediments.
The major gold occurrences within the Sefwi Belt, Ahafo, Bibiani and Chirano, are located along the belt’s margins.
A prominent north south trending shear zone (the Bibiani Fault) bisects the Sefwi Belt. This fault is observed in the Bibiani mine and is clearly mapped by aerial magnetics northwards to intersect the western margin of the Sefwi Belt just north of the Newmont Ahafo mine. The Bibiani fault passes through the Guskin property and is described by Pelangio Exploration Inc as a controlling structure on their property immediately northeast of Guskin Concession Figure 4.
Artisanal hard rock mining was observed during the field work near the Asikafokurum village. This site is located close to the interpreted position of the Bibiani fault.
Figure 4: Sefwi Belt major faults and structure.
The interior of the Sefwi-Bibiani Greenstone Belt is metamorphosed to amphibolite grade whereas the NW edge (where the Ahafo deposits and Asumura Concession are located) is largely in the greenschist facies (Griffis, 2002). The last phase of deformation of the Sefwi-Bibiani Belt Boundary is in dispute. Griffis (2002) reports an interpretation by La Source geologists in which the NW edge is an overturned thrust fault. Enders (2004) and Williams (2005) describe a thrust fault reactivated by later left-lateral strike slip faulting.
Mineralization Type and Occurrences
Gold mineralization on the concession is shear zone hosted and often shown an association with foliated andesites, carbonated andesitic stuff, and cherts. This suggests intense hydrothermal alteration (silification and carbonatisation). Quartz veining is ubiquitous in the area. The carbonated andesitic tuffs host two small reefs in the area.
The concession area is therefore considered prospective for the following styles of gold mineralization:
- Shear zone hosted quartz veins of variable strike length and width
- Gold mineralization associated with shallow dipping quartz veins and stockwork systems in foliated andesites and carbonated tuffs
Phase 1: Lode Gold Investigation
The following work program was completed.
- Airborne Geophysical Studies
- Detail Geological Mapping
- Outcrop Mapping and Rock Sampling
- Active Stream Sediment Sampling (2017)
- Open Pit Rock Sampling
- 17 Hole Drill Program (Proposed Q2/Q3 2022)
Airborne Geophysical Data Interpretation
A non-proprietary airborne radiometric data covering concession area was acquired reprocessed and interpreted to provide a broader understanding of the geophysical signature of the project area. The Geophysical survey was flown by Aerodat Inc of Canada 1995 to 1997. Flight spacing is 200m with lines oriented northwest. The nominal terrain clearance is 100m. Colour images of K, Th and U were produced in addition to a K- U-Th plot is all shown in the figures below.
The Thorium and Uranium data show a similar pattern to potassium distribution although; the levels of thorium and uranium are relatively lower.The band of elevated potassium that runs across the central portion of the concession area is most likely due to a potassium rich dyke.
Narrow bands of moderate to high radiometric potassium may also be dueto NE NNE regional shears and faults which may have acted as pathways to hydrothermal fluids. Such observations may have resulted from weak potassic alteration by hydrothermal fluids associated with gold mineralization or by fluids simply using some conduits.
The drainage basin of the Tano have low radiometric signature, granites were observed at the northwestern section between Domeabra and Dantano. Most of the Birimian rocks have general trend ranging between 600 and 700. Bedding is normally parallel to the foliation direction (S0 – S1). Highly metamorphosed and moderately foliated quartz seritite schist, trending 0600crops out in the northeast section (foliation parallel to strike direction), confirming the existence of a possible major NE/shear zone. Quartz veins generally trends 0500 and are mainly with the volcaniclastics and dips sub vertical.
Figure 5: Total Magnetic intensity map showing target areas
Figure 6: Analytic Signal of TMI showing target areas
Figure 7: Radiometric data showing Thorium concentration on the Kukuom concession
Figure 8: Radiometric data showing Thorium concentration on the Kukuom concession
Figure 9: Radiometric data showing Uranium concentration on the Kukuom concession
Figure 10: Radiometric data showing Potassium concentration on the Kukuom concession
Figure 11: Ternary image of radiometric on the Kukuom concession
Detail Geological Mapping
The Guskin Gold Kukuom Concession is located on the NW edge of the Sefwi-Bibiani Greenstone Belt along a well-defined zone of many gold occurrences that trends 20 – 40° east of north and stretches northwards from the Ghanaian border with Cote d’Ivoire for a distance of about 200 km (Infomine, 2005).
Intruded along the Belt margin are a series of hornblende granodiorite intrusions of the Dixcove suite, which preferentially exploit a major regional break separating Birimian sediments of the basin from the Birimian metavolcanic rocks of the belt (Infomine, 2005).
Geological mapping was restricted to areas around old pits, trenches around Kukuom Dantano and Yan Ke. A geological map was prepared by using the compilation of information from the rock exposures with historical geological data at a scale of 1: 50, 000 (Figure 4).
An extensive tropical weathering has produced a thick oxide profile through a greater percentage of the license area. The Kukuom Concession is underline by Birimian metasedimentary rocks with a NE – SW trend and subvertical to vertical dips. These consist of metabasalts, Chlorite Schists and volcaniclastics.
Outcrop Mapping and Rock Sampling
Outcrop mapping was carried out in all the areas and other areas outside the targets Guskin’s concession were also mapped. The following rock units were mapped.
- Mafic intrusive
- Quartz Veins
The metavolcanic rock occurs from Tanoso and extends to Krapen through Kukuom. the metavolcanics are made of Dacites, Andesites, Basalts, and Chlorite Schist intercalated with tuff and greywacke with volcanic elements. The metavolcanics are generally massive, dark green to grey, and commonly showing signs of chlorite alteration. No primary structures, for example pillow were seen. In areas with the strongest deformation these rocks may be partially transformed into chlorite schist with sericite. The deformation in the metavolcanics follows the NE and NNE regional trend of the Birimian, with steep dips mostly to the east.
There are carbonate and siliceous veins and veinlets with volcanics. Sulphides mostly pyrite and sometimes asenopyrite grains which are mostly euhedral in shape are present. A very good exposure of the metavolcanics was observed very close to the Kukuom- Dantano road, with several cavitiesproduced by weathered carbonates.
Figure 12: Field photograph of Birimian metavolcanics with quartz and carbonate vein intrusions
The granitoids were observed around Dantano and Moro Ekura They are mostly hornblende granodrite and may be part of the Belt type granitoids. The outcrop exposures are very poor with only few boulders and remnant rounded outcrops in the river valleys There are variations in composition as well as the structural features in all the three localities where the granitoids outcrop.
During the rock mapping special attention was paid to the various types of quartz veins. The quartz veins were sampled based on their colour and the rocks they intruded and their orientation. A total of 10 quartz samples were taken from all the target areas. At Yank Ye the presence of quartz veining in the granitoid bodies is characterized by parallel running quartz veins, stockwork with width ranging between 1 -10 centimeters.
Figure 13: Field photograph of quartz veins in one of the shear zones near Asufufo
Figure 14: Geology of Kukuom concession area.
Active Stream Sediment Sampling
Active stream sediment sampling program was conducted in 2017 to collect stream sediment and pan concentrate which will represent nature’s composition of the entire catchment area upstream from the sample location. This technique is very powerful and rapid method of mineral exploration.
The sampling of the stream beds therefore, would help to identify and locatethe sources of increased concentration of gold and hence reflect the presence of nearby mineralization.
A total of 30 stream sediments were collected around the main streams including the Tano,Akyikyisua, Akwasua, and Disri Rivers. Work was focused on sampling all confluences for river system within drain lines in excess of 200 metres. Samples were collected from grey to greyish brown soil material from both primary and secondary tributaries. The rock fragments logged were quartz pebbles which are often subrounded to subangular in shape. Samples were panned manually and results shows traces of gold in almost all the samples. Ten of the Sample was sent to the Geological Survey Laboratories in Accra and the results as shown in Table 3,confirmed the traces of gold with the rivers in the concession area.
|Sample No.||Latitude (N)||Longitude (W)||Results (gm)|
Table 3: Results of Stream Sediments Samples
Alluvial Gold Investigation
The concession area traditionally has been known for alluvial gold production with mining activity dating back many generations. This has largely been on a small scale although some larger operations were attempted by several European groups early in this century.
Virtually all the alluvial gold in the area occurs in unconsolidated gravels around the flanks of the Sefwi Belt, a peneplain. Known bedrock occurrencesof gold consisting largely of narrow quartz vein and disseminated sulphides, are known to occur in many parts of the district .This entire area is part of the Tano River drainage system which further downstream is well known for its alluvial gold.
Gold-bearing gravels, 0.5 -2.5 metres in thickness, occur over widths of up to several tens of metres in the valleys of the Tano and its tributaries (Figure 15) . The gravels are deposited on weathered clay-rich bedrock, and are overlain by 3-7 metres of overburden. Results so far obtained from the small scale alluvial miners of concessions indicated appreciable level of grades of gold with the gravely horizon in the Tano alluvial basin. The test pitting programme cannot establish fully the proven mineable reserve of the property, additional work is required that will involve further pitting and bulk sampling.
Stream sediment sampling conducted shows the presence of alluvial gold occurrences in low lying Tano basin.
Figure 15: Map showing the alluvial potential of the Tano basin with in the Kukuom Concession Map showing the planned alluvial exploration areas for 2022
Figure 16: Arial view of the open pit May 2021
Having mineralized exposed quartz veins, presence of illegal mining pits and old exploration trenches along a one (1) kilometer stretch trend, systematic method of exploration is needed in other to quantify the gold resource potential of the Kukuom Concession.
Resource and Reserve estimates will be determineds setting the stage for acquiring a Mining Lease (ML) and subsequent gold production.
Figure 17: Open pit exposed veins 54, and 55.
Summary of Work Program
The aim of this work program is to employ modern exploration methods to identify the potential gold deposits on the Kukuom Concession. To achieve this objective, approximately six (6) months of prospecting activities involving the following work program will be undertaken.
- Geological mapping and grab bulk sampling
- Induced Polarization (IP) ground geophysics survey
- Opening up of the old trenches
- Reverse Circulation (RC) drilling
- Diamond drilling (DD)
- Data analysis and reporting (including modeling and resource estimation)
Mapping and Grab and Bulk Sampling
Six (6) grab samples were collected from the open pit. Initial samples collected tested up to 46.6 grams per tonne gold. In preparation for the proposed IP and drill and open pit bulk testing program, the samples were collected from the hard rock vein, surrounding open pit wall, and two historic alluvial tailing piles found onsite. Most notably, three samples were taken from two bedrock pits exposed vein and measured 46.6 grams per tonne (g/t) and 10.65 g/t gold. The third sample was a combination of both pits, crushed, and panned with the slurry measuring 23.3 g/t gold. Additionally, a random wall sample taken measured 1.84 g/t gold, and samples of two historic tailing piles were also taken to be studied. Historic tailing samples may be of interest for studies of historic artisanal mine locations, non-modern mining techniques, the gold left behind from the alluvial payload. The two samples contained 1.14 g/t and 0.80 g/t gold.
Geological mapping on the scale of 1: 20,000 will be commenced on the 1km square area. This aims at capturing the lithological units identified in exposed pit, possible old workings, quartz veining, outcrops, and boulders. Data gathered from this exercise will be added on to the base map and data base system.
Induced Polarization (IP) Ground Geophysics Survey
To clearly define the physical properties of the exposed veins and assist with following the two (2) exposed veins along strike and provide targets for a Phase II drill program and extension of the bulk sampling program.
In an IP survey, in addition to resistivity measurement, capacitive properties of the subsurface materials may be determined as well. As a result, IP surveys provide additional information about the spatial variation in lithology and grain-surface chemistry.
We intend to subcontract a pilot IP study over the veins and anticipate to read to a depth of 150 meters. We anticipate a 3 km-long study and anticipate seeing a strong resistivity anomaly coincident with the gold-in-vein anomaly and a moderate/high chargeability anomaly along the flanks of the veins. Results will help follow the veins along strike.
Opening Up of Old Trenches
Cleaning and sampling of old trenches will be done during the prospecting mapping stage. It is expected that this method would be conducted to define structural features, which in conjunction with the delineated mineralized zones, would help generate targets for RC drilling. 250 m of trenching is planned for this exercise.
Reverse Circulation (RC) Drilling
The extent and depth of mineralization will be explored with RC drilling. This will help to know the lithology associated with mineralization. About 500m of exploratory RC holes is planned for at this stage when proved successful diamond drilling will follow up. Sampling will be composited at 2m intervals to cut cost in assaying. With QAC/QC added 780 sample will be collected for analysis.
Figure 18: Showing drill locations
Diamond Drilling (DD)
Diamond drilling will follow after the RC program. This will be necessary for the detailed studies on geology, geotechnical studies, and metallurgical test and for resources calculations and in preparation for a pre-feasibility report.
Resource drilling program will be drawn into this stage as crucial determinant phase of the whole project. 400m of diamond drilling plus corresponding 420 samples including standards, blanks and duplicates is estimated for this work program.
Data Analysis and Reporting
Data collected to date will form the basis of our NI 43-101 prefeasibility report with subsequent conclusions and recommendation for the advancement of the project.
2022 Work Schedule
Allowing for activity overlaps, the expected duration for the above work will be 6 months taking into consideration additional 1 month buffer for unexpected delays in work schedule (refer to activity/time schedule chart below).
Adjacent Gold Mines
Immediately to the northwest of the Guskin Mining Enterprise Kukuom concession is the Newmont Ahafo Mine with a proven reserve more than 15 Million Ounces. This concession is on the same belt with the same rock type and structures similar to that of Guskin Mining.
Southwest of Kukuom Concession is the 7 Moz Bibiani deposit, operated previously by Anglogold Ashanti but now the property belong to NobleResources. Further south on the same Sefwi belt is the 5 Moz Kairos Chirano mine.
These occurrences seem to be all in similar geology and structural setting as the KUKUOM concession. It appears as though there is three or more NE trending parallel shear zones that the deposits occur along. The contact between the Birimian metasediments and metavolcanics (Figure 19) appearsto be an important empirical indicator of gold mineralization.
Figure 19: Map showing adjacent gold mines close to Guskin ‘s Kukuom Concession
Environmental, Socio – Economic Issues and Community Relation
The company shall practice sound environmental practices and shall abide by all regulations of the environmental protection agency and the company shall live up to its social responsibilities. Land reclamation, water pollution, etc., will be studied. Effort will be made to minimize the environmental impact through careful execution of the exploration activities. There is good understanding between the company and the various communities. Guskin considered the economic and social life of the people by employing morethe 75% of the work force from the project area. Guskin will ensure prompt payment of compensation for land required for operational purposes.
The preliminary exploration carried out indicates Guskin Gold’s concession at Kukuom has the potential to host economic gold deposits.
We have the potential to further investigate the gold targets defined at the open pit from sampling and from historical exploration activities, its geological location and proximity to significant goldmining activities make it very prospective for gold production. The interpretation of aerial geophysics and evidence found at the open pit area and the small-scale artisanal mining observed during the field work also contribute to a positive assessment of the property.
Exploration targets, both alluvial and hard rock, within the Kukuom Concession should continue to be outlined and defined which using the open pit bulk testing program to begin cash flow from the operations (where permitted). Primary target areas are located within the sheared contact between Birimian Metavolcanic and the Birimian volcano -sedimentary rocks.a
From the encouraging results from the small scale miners in the area couple with the large open pit in the Kukuom concession, we should devise a work program for 2022 to continue to study the viability of a big Mining Project in the Kukuom area. This is buttressed by the development of similar operations in the nearby concessions which had yielded very fruitful results and large scale producing mines.